Wednesday, 30 July 2014

搜狐 网站 OAuth 2.0 隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 网络安全漏洞 (信息泄漏 & 公开重定向)



















搜狐 网站 OAuth 2.0 隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 网络安全漏洞 (信息泄漏 & 公开重定向) 




(1) 域名:
sohu.com




" 搜狐(NASDAQ:SOHU),是一家互联网中文门户网站。1995年,搜狐创始人张朝阳从美国麻省理工学院毕业回到中国,利用风险投资创建了爱特信信 息技术有限公司,1998年正式推出搜狐网。2000年,搜狐在美国纳斯达克证券市场上市。搜狐开发的产品有搜狗拼音输入法、搜狗五笔输入法、搜狗音乐 盒、搜狗浏览器、搜狐彩电、独立的搜索引擎搜狗和网游门户畅游。搜狐是2008年北京奥林匹克运动会唯一的互联网赞助商,也是奥林匹克运动会历史上第一个 互联网内容的赞助商。" (百度百科)







(2) 漏洞描述:
搜狐 网站有有一个计算机安全问题,黑客可以对它进行隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 网络攻击。

这 个漏洞不需要用户登录,测试是基于微软 Windows 8 的 IE (10.0.9200.16750); Ubuntu (14.04) 的 Mozilla 火狐 (Firefox 34.0) 和 谷歌 Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0; 以及苹果 OS X Lion 10.7 的 Safari 6.16。




(2.1) 漏洞细节:

Sohu 的 OAuth 2.0 系统可能遭到攻击。更确切地说, Sohu 对 OAuth 2.0 系统的 parameter “&redirect_uri“ 验证不够充分。可以用来构造对 Sohu 的 URL跳转 攻击。


与此同时,这个漏洞可以用下面的参数来收集第三方 App 和 用户 的敏感信息(敏感信息包含在 HTTP header里),
"&response_type"=sensitive_info,token,code...
"&scope"=email,name...


它也增加了对第三方网站 URL跳转 攻击的成功率。


漏洞地点 "/oauth2/authorize?",参数"&redirect_uri", e.g.
https://api.t.sohu.com/oauth2/authorize?client_id=TP4vefRdCFUEFhrNpMnQ&scope=basic&response_type=code&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fnews.cn%2Fsitecb%2Fsohu.do&state=http://my.xuan.news.cn/main.do__20 [1]



同意三方 App 前:
当一个已经登录的 Sohu 用户点击上面的 URL ([1]), 对话框会询问他是否接受第三方 App 接收他的信息。如果同意,他会被跳转到 参数 "&redirect_uri" 的 URL。


如果没有登录的 Sohu 用户点击 URL ([1]), 他登录后会发生同样的事情。



同意三方 App 后:
已经登录的 Sohu 用户 不会再被询问是否接受 三方 App。当他点击 URL ([1]) 时,他会被直接跳转到攻击者控制的页面。


如果 Sohu 用户没有登录,攻击依然可以在要求他登录的Sohu的对话框被确认后完成(这个过程不会提示任何和三方 App 有关的内容)。




(2.1.1) Sohu 一般会允许属于已被验证过得三方 App domain 的所有 URLs。 然而,这些 URLs 可以被操控。比如,参数 "&redirect_uri" 是被三方 App 设置的,但攻击者可以修改此参数的值。


因此,Sohu 用户意识不到他会被先从 Sohu 跳转到第三方 App 的网页,然后从此网页跳转到有害的网页。这与从 Sohu 直接跳转到有害网页是一样的。


因为 Sohu 的 OAuth 2.0 客户很多,这样的攻击可以很常见。


在同意三方 App 之前,Sohu 的 OAuth 2.0 让用户更容易相信被跳转的页面是安全的。这增加了三方 App 被 URL跳转 攻击的成功率。


同意三方 App 后, 攻击者可以完全绕过 Sohu 的 URL跳转 验证系统。


用了一个页面进行了测试, 页面是 "http://essayjeanslike.lofter.com/". 可以假定它是有害的,并且含有收集三方 App 和用户敏感信息的 code。


Sohu 与 news.cn 有关的有漏洞的 URL:
https://api.t.sohu.com/oauth2/authorize?client_id=TP4vefRdCFUEFhrNpMnQ&scope=basic&response_type=code&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Flogin.home.news.cn%2Fcb%2Fsohu.do&state=http://my.xuan.news.cn/main.do__20



POC (我们可以在news.cn domain 内随便修改"redirect_uri"的值):
https://api.t.sohu.com/oauth2/authorize?client_id=TP4vefRdCFUEFhrNpMnQ&scope=basic&response_type=code&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Flogin.home.news.cn%2Fcb%2Fsohu.do&state=http://my.xuan.news.cn/main.do__20



POC 视频:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T1XW31s92qA





博客细节:
http://tetraph.blogspot.com/2014/05/sohus-oauth-20-covert-redirect.html









(3) 什么是隐蔽重定向? 
隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 是一个计算机网络安全漏洞。这个漏洞发布于 2014年5月。漏洞成因是网络应用软件对跳转到合作者的跳转没有充分过滤。这个漏洞经常利用第三方网站 (包括合作网站) 的公开重定向 (Open Redirect) 或者 跨站脚本漏洞 (XSS - Cross-site Scripting) 问题。

隐蔽重定向也对单点登录 (single sign-on) 有影响。最初发布的是对两款常用登录软件 OAuth 2.0 和 OpenID 的影响。黑客可以利用真实的网站进行网络钓鱼,从而窃取用户敏感信息。几乎所用提供 OAuth 2.0 和 OpenID 服务的网站都被影响。隐蔽重定向也可以和 跨站请求伪造 (CSRF - Cross-site Request Forgery) 一起利用。







相关文章:
http://tetraph.com/security/covert-redirect/sohus-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect
https://inzeed.wordpress.com/2014/07/28/sohu-exploit/
https://twitter.com/buttercarrot/status/558906629056249856
http://diebiyi.com/articles/security/covert-redirect/sohus-oauth-bug
http://russiapost.blogspot.com/2014/07/sohu-hacking.html
http://shellmantis.tumblr.com/post/119492886806/securitypost
http://xingzhehong.lofter.com/post/1cfd0db2_706af13
https://itinfotechnology.wordpress.com/2014/07/07/sohu-attack/
http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/covert-redirect/sohus-oauth-2-0
http://tetraph.blog.163.com/blog/static/23460305120144714756937/
http://securityrelated.blogspot.com/2014/08/sohu-service-attack.html




============


Sohu OAuth 2.0 Service Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs (Information Leakage & Open Redirect)



(1) Domain:
sohu.com

"Sohu, Inc. (Chinese: 搜狐; pinyin: Sōuhú; literally: "Search-fox") is a Chinese Internet company headquartered in the Sohu Internet Plaza in Haidian District, Beijing. This company and its subsidiaries offer advertising, a search engine, on-line multiplayer gaming and other services. For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2007, Sohu Inc.'s revenues increased 41% to $188.9M. Net income increased 31% to $35M. Sohu was ranked as the world's 3rd and 12th fastest growing company by Fortune in 2009 and 2010 respectively. As of August 2011, Sohu is the 44th overall in Alexa's internet rankings." (Wikipedia)




(2) Vulnerability Description:
Sohu web application has a computer security problem. Hacker can exploit it by Covert Redirect cyber attacks. 


The vulnerabilities can be attacked without user login. Tests were performed on Microsoft IE (10.0.9200.16750) of Windows 8, Mozilla Firefox (34.0) & Google Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0 ubuntu0.14.04.1.1064 (64-bit) of Ubuntu (14.04),Apple Safari 6.1.6 of Mac OS X Lion 10.7. 




(2.1) Vulnerability Detail:
Sohu's OAuth 2.0 system is susceptible to Attacks. More specifically, the authentication of parameter "&redirct_uri" in OAuth 2.0 system is insufficient. It can be misused to design Open Redirect Attacks to Sohu.

At the same time, it can be used to collect sensitive information of both third-party app and users by using the following parameters (sensitive information is contained in HTTP header.),
"&response_type"=sensitive_info,token...
"&scope"=get_user_info%2Cadd_share...

It increases the likelihood of successful Open Redirect Attacks to third-party websites, too.


Before acceptance of third-party application:
When a logged-in Sohu user clicks the URL ([1]) above, he/she will be asked for consent as in whether to allow a third-party website to receive his/her information. If the user clicks OK, he/she will be then redirected to the URL assigned to the parameter "&redirect_uri".

If a user has not logged onto Sohu and clicks the URL ([1]) above, the same situation will happen upon login.


After acceptance of third-party application:
A logged-in Sohu user would no longer be asked for consent and could be redirected to a webpage controlled by the attacker when he/she clicks the URL ([1]).

For a user who has not logged in, the attack could still be completed after a pop-up page that prompts him/her to log in.



(2.1.1) Sohu would normally allow all the URLs that belong to the domain of an authorized third-party website. However, these URLs could be prone to manipulation. For example, the "&redirect_uri" parameter in the URLs is supposed to be set by the third-party websites, but an attacker could change its value to make Attacks.

Hence, a user could be redirected from Sohu to a vulnerable URL in that domain first and later be redirected from this vulnerable site to a malicious site unwillingly. This is as if the user is redirected from Sohu directly. The number of Sohu's OAuth 2.0 client websites is so huge that such Attacks could be commonplace.

Before acceptance of the third-party application, Sohu's OAuth 2.0 system makes the redirects appear more trustworthy and could potentially increase the likelihood of successful Open Redirect Attacks of third-party website.

Once the user accepts the application, the attackers could completely bypass Sohu's authentication system and attack more easily.



(2.2) Used one of webpages for the following tests. The webpage is "http://essayjeanslike.lofter.com/". Can suppose it is malicious and contains code that collect sensitive information of both third-party app and users.


POC Video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T1XW31s92qA





Blog Detail:
http://tetraph.blogspot.com/2014/05/sohus-oauth-20-covert-redirect.html







(3) What is Covert Redirect? 

Covert Redirect is a class of security bugs disclosed in May 2014. It is an application that takes a parameter and redirects a user to the parameter value without sufficient validation. This often makes use of Open Redirect and XSS (Cross-site Scripting) vulnerabilities in third-party applications.



Covert Redirect is also related to single sign-on, such as OAuth and OpenID. Hacker may use it to steal users' sensitive information. Almost all OAuth 2.0 and OpenID providers worldwide are affected. Covert Redirect can work together with CSRF (Cross-site Request Forgery) as well. 



Discover and Reporter:
Jing Wang, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. 
(@justqdjing)
http://tetraph.com/wangjing/







Related Articles:

http://tetraph.com/security/covert-redirect/sohus-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect
https://inzeed.wordpress.com/2014/07/28/sohu-exploit/
https://twitter.com/buttercarrot/status/558906629056249856
http://diebiyi.com/articles/security/covert-redirect/sohus-oauth-bug
http://russiapost.blogspot.com/2014/07/sohu-hacking.html
http://shellmantis.tumblr.com/post/119492886806/securitypost
http://xingzhehong.lofter.com/post/1cfd0db2_706af13
https://itinfotechnology.wordpress.com/2014/07/07/sohu-attack/
http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/covert-redirect/sohus-oauth-2-0
http://tetraph.blog.163.com/blog/static/23460305120144714756937/
http://securityrelated.blogspot.com/2014/08/sohu-service-attack.html

Thursday, 24 July 2014

Odnoklassniki.ru (Одноклассники ) Online Website Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs Based on Google.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Odnoklassniki.ru (Одноклассники ) Online Website Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs Based on Google.com



(1) Domain:
Odnoklassniki.ru



"Odnoklassniki, OK.ru (Russian: Одноклассники -Classmates) is a social network service for classmates and old friends. It is popular in Russia and former Soviet Republicsz. The site was developed by Albert Popkov on March 4, 2006. The website currently claims that it has more than 200 million registered users and 45 million daily unique visitors. Users have to be at least seven years old to make an account. Odnoklassniki also currently has an Alexa Internet traffic ranking of 69 worldwide and 7 for Russia. Revenues in the first quarter of 2008 for Odnoklassniki amounted to $3.3 million. The site has been online for at least eight years. Compared with internet averages, Odnoklassniki.ru's users tend to be under the age of 35, and they tend to be men earning less than $30,000 who have postgraduate educations and browse from home. The site is particularly popular among users in Kyrgyzstan (where it is ranked #4) and Armenia (#5)." (Wikipedia)








(2) Vulnerability Description:
Odnoklassniki.ru web application has a computer security problem. Hacker can exploit it by Covert Redirect cyber attacks. 







The vulnerabilities can be attacked without user login. Tests were performed on Microsoft IE (10.0.9200.16750) of Windows 8, Mozilla Firefox (34.0) & Google Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0 ubuntu0.14.04.1.1064 (64-bit) of Ubuntu (14.04),Apple Safari 6.1.6 of Mac OS X Lion 10.7. 




The vulnerability occurs at "odnoklassniki.ru/dk?" page with "&st.link" parameter, i.e.
http://www.odnoklassniki.ru/dk?cmd=logExternal&st.cmd=logExternal&st.name=62335557910585&st.link=http%3A%2F%2Fgoogle.com





(2.1) When a user is redirected from Odnoklassniki.ru to another site, Odnoklassniki.ru will check whether the redirected URL belongs to domains Odnoklassniki.ru's whitelist, e.g.
google.com

However, if the URLs in a redirected domain have open URL redirection vulnerabilities themselves, a user could be redirected from Odnoklassniki.ru to a vulnerable URL in that domain first and later be redirected from this vulnerable site to a malicious site. This is as if being redirected from Odnoklassniki.ru directly.


One of the vulnerable domain is,
google.com





(2.2) Use one of  webpages for the following tests. The webpage address is "http://tetraphlike.lofter.com/". Can suppose that this webpage is malicious.


Vulnerable URL:
http://www.odnoklassniki.ru/dk?cmd=logExternal&st.cmd=logExternal&st.name=62335557910585&st.link=http%3A%2F%2Fodnoklassniki.ru




POC:
http://www.odnoklassniki.ru/dk?cmd=logExternal&st.cmd=logExternal&st.name=62335557910585&st.link=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2Faccounts%2FLogout%3Fservice%3Dwise%26continue%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fgoogleads.g.doubleclick.net%252Faclk%253Fsa%253DL%2526ai%253DCtHoIVxn3UvjLOYGKiAeelIHIBfLQnccEAAAQASAAUNTx5Pf4_____wFgvwWCARdjYS1wdWItMDQ2NjU4MjEwOTU2NjUzMsgBBOACAKgDAaoE5AFP0NHr5cHwFmWgKNs6HNTPVk7TWSV-CDHX83dKdGSWJ2ADoZNIxUHZwjAODRyDY_7nVtpuqSLOTef4xzVxDQ2U22MNbGak33Ur7i2jDB8LdYt9TbC3ifsXmklY5jl3Zpq4_lP7wagVfjt0--tNPPGTR96NGbxgPvfHMq9ZsTXpjhc_lPlnyGjlWzF8yn437iaxhGRwYLt_CymifLO2YaJPkCm9nLpONtUM-mstUSpKQrP2VjjaZkbDtuK0naLLBV37aYEY4TzWQi8fQGN47z4XgpinBCna91zQayZjn2wxccDCl0zgBAGgBhU%2526num%253D0%2526sig%253DAOD64_3Qi4qG3CRVHRI5AHSkSGuL7HJqSA%2526client%253Dca-pub-0466582109566532%2526adurl%253Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.tetraph.com%252Fkaleidoscope.html





POC video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cf_-xPsYD-s


Blog Detail:
http://tetraph.blogspot.com/2014/05/odnoklassnikiru-covert-redirect.html








(3) What is Covert Redirect? 


Covert Redirect is a class of security bugs disclosed in May 2014. It is an application that takes a parameter and redirects a user to the parameter value without sufficient validation. This often makes use of Open Redirect and XSS (Cross-site Scripting) vulnerabilities in third-party applications.



Covert Redirect is also related to single sign-on. It is known by its influence on OAuth and OpenID. Hacker may use it to steal users' sensitive information. Almost all OAuth 2.0 and OpenID providers worldwide are affected. Covert Redirect can work together with CSRF (Cross-site Request Forgery) as well.






Discover and Reporter:
Wang Jing, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. (@justqdjing)







More Details:
http://tetraph.com/security/covert-redirect/odnoklassniki-ru-covert-redirect-vulnerability-based-on-google/
http://securityrelated.blogspot.com/2014/10/odnoklassnikiru-covert-redirect.html
http://whitehatpost.lofter.com/post/1cc773c8_706b5e4
https://mathfas.wordpress.com/2014/10/15/odnoklassniki-ru-covert-redirect-vulnerability-based-on-google/
https://twitter.com/yangziyou/status/614327346808664064
http://ithut.tumblr.com/post/119494119203/securitypost
https://vulnerabilitypost.wordpress.com/2014/10/15/odnoklassniki-ru-covert-redirect-vulnerability-based-on-google/
http://tetraph.blog.163.com/blog/static/23460305120144511829839/
http://computerobsess.blogspot.com/2014/10/odnoklassnikiru-covert-redirect.html
http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/covert-redirect/odnoklassniki-ru-covert-redirect-vulnerability-based-on-google/



Tuesday, 22 July 2014

网易 网站 OAuth 2.0 隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 网络安全漏洞 (信息泄漏 & 公开重定向)


















网易 网站 OAuth 2.0 隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 网络安全漏洞 (信息泄漏 & 公开重定向) 




(1) 域名:
163.com


" 网易 (NASDAQ: NTES)是中国领先的互联网技术公司,利用最先进的互联网技术,加强人与人之间信息的交流和共享,实现“网聚人的力量”。创始人兼CEO是丁磊。 在开 发互联网应用、服务及其它技术方面,网易始终保持业界的领先地位,并在中国互联网行业内率先推出了包括中文全文检索、全中文大容量免费邮件系统、无限容量 免费网络相册、免费电子贺卡站、网上虚拟社区、网上拍卖平台、24小时客户服务中心在内的业内领先产品或服务,还通过自主研发推出了一款率先取得白金地位 的国产网络游戏。网易公司推出了门户网站、在线游戏、电子邮箱、在线教育、电子商务、在线音乐、网易bobo等多种服务。" (百度百科)








(2) 漏洞描述:
 网站有有一个计算机安全问题,黑客可以对它进行隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 网络攻击。


这 个漏洞不需要用户登录,测试是基于微软 Windows 8 的 IE (10.0.9200.16750); Ubuntu (14.04) 的 Mozilla 火狐 (Firefox 34.0) 和 谷歌 Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0; 以及苹果 OS X Lion 10.7 的 Safari 6.16。




(2.1) 漏洞细节:
163 的 OAuth 2.0 系统可能遭到攻击。更确切地说, 163 对 OAuth 2.0 系统的 parameter “&redirect_uri“ 验证不够充分。可以用来构造对 163 的 URL跳转 攻击。





与此同时,这个漏洞可以用下面的参数来收集第三方 App 和 用户 的敏感信息(敏感信息包含在 HTTP header里),
“&response_type"=sensitive_info,token,code…
“&scope"=get_user_info,email…





它也增加了对第三方网站 URL跳转 攻击的成功率。





漏洞地点 “oauth2/authorize.do?",参数"&redirect_uri", e.g.
http://reg.163.com/open/oauth2/authorize.do?client_id=3898477018&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fweibo.yihaodian.com%2Fweibo%2FunionLoginAction.action%3Fstate%3Dtophttps%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com&response_type=code&state=06c7f1548bedaf6a8e19cec28d9435c8 [1]







同意三方 App 前:
当一个已经登录的 163 用户点击上面的 URL ([1]), 对话框会询问他是否接受第三方 App 接收他的信息。如果同意,他会被跳转到 参数 “&redirect_uri" 的 URL。





如果没有登录的 163 用户点击 URL ([1]), 他登录后会发生同样的事情。







同意三方 App 后:
已经登录的 163 用户 不会再被询问是否接受 三方 App。当他点击 URL ([1]) 时,他会被直接跳转到攻击者控制的页面。





如果 163 用户没有登录,攻击依然可以在要求他登录的163的对话框被确认后完成(这个过程不会提示任何和三方 App 有关的内容)。








(2.1.1) 163 一般会允许属于已被验证过得三方 App domain 的所有 URLs。 然而,这些 URLs 可以被操控。比如,参数 “&redirect_uri" 是被三方 App 设置的,但攻击者可以修改此参数的值。





因此,163 用户意识不到他会被先从 163 跳转到第三方 App 的网页,然后从此网页跳转到有害的网页。这与从 163 直接跳转到有害网页是一样的。





因为 163 的 OAuth 2.0 客户很多,这样的攻击可以很常见。





更严重的是,有的 App 允许参数”&redirect_uri" 设置为任意 URL (不仅是属于这个 App domain 的 URL)。这样就可已从163 直接跳转,但是这种情况下,返回的 URL 里不包含敏感信息。




在同意三方 App 之前,163 的 OAuth 2.0 让用户更容易相信被跳转的页面是安全的。这增加了三方 App 被 URL跳转 攻击的成功率。





同意三方 App 后, 攻击者可以完全绕过 163 的 URL跳转 验证系统。









(2.2) 用了一个页面进行了测试, 页面是 “http://lifegreen.lofter.com/“. 可以假定它是有害的,并且含有收集三方 App 和用户敏感信息的 code(两次跳转才有敏感信息,&redirect_uri 直接跳转没有)。






下面是一个有漏洞的三方 domain:
yhd.com


163 与 yhd.com 有关的有漏洞的 URL:
http://reg.163.com/open/oauth2/authorize.do?client_id=3898477018&redirect_uri=https%3A%2F%2Fpassport.yhd.com%2Fnetease%2Fcallback.do&response_type=code&state=1dca59aafb0ccfd17accfe22436eb813


POC:
http://reg.163.com/open/oauth2/authorize.do?client_id=3898477018&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E6%258B%25BE%25E7%25A7%258B.html






POC 视频:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0KF65swbl8A


博客细节:
http://tetraph.blogspot.com/2014/05/163s-oauth-20-covert-redirect-system.html



 


(3) 什么是隐蔽重定向? 
隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 是一个计算机网络安全漏洞。这个漏洞发布于 2014年5月。漏洞成因是网络应用软件对跳转到合作者的跳转没有充分过滤。这个漏洞经常利用第三方网站 (包括合作网站) 的公开重定向 (Open Redirect) 或者 跨站脚本漏洞 (XSS – Cross-site Scripting) 问题。

隐蔽重定向也对单点登录 (single sign-on) 有影响。最初发布的是对两款常用登录软件 OAuth 2.0 和 OpenID 的影响。黑客可以利用真实的网站进行网络钓鱼,从而窃取用户敏感信息。几乎所用提供 OAuth 2.0 和 OpenID 服务的网站都被影响。隐蔽重定向还可以和 跨站请求伪造 (CSRF – Cross-site Request Forgery) 一起利用。



















Netease OAuth 2.0 Service Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs (Information Leakage & Open Redirect)



(1) Domain:
163.com


“NetEase, Inc. (simplified Chinese: 网易; traditional Chinese: 網易; pinyin: Wǎng Yì) is a Chinese Internet company that operates 163.com, a popular web portal ranked 27 by Alexa as of April 2014. 163.com is one of the largest Chinese Internet content providers, and as such frequently appears in the top 10 domains used in spam." (Wikipedia)







(2) Vulnerability Description:
Netease web application has a computer security problem. Hacker can exploit it by Covert Redirect cyber attacks. 




 


The vulnerabilities can be attacked without user login. Tests were performed on Microsoft IE (10.0.9200.16750) of Windows 8, Mozilla Firefox (34.0) & Google Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0 ubuntu0.14.04.1.1064 (64-bit) of Ubuntu (14.04),Apple Safari 6.1.6 of Mac OS X Lion 10.7. 









(2.1) Vulnerability Detail:
163’s OAuth 2.0 system is susceptible to Attacks. More specifically, the authentication of parameter “&redirct_uri" in OAuth 2.0 system is insufficient. It can be misused to design Open Redirect Attacks to 163.




At the same time, it can be used to collect sensitive information of both third-party app and users by using the following parameters (sensitive information is contained in HTTP header.),
“&response_type"=sensitive_info,token…
“&scope"=get_user_info%2Cadd_share…





It increases the likelihood of successful Open Redirect Attacks to third-party websites, too.








Before acceptance of third-party application:
When a logged-in 163 user clicks the URL ([1]) above, he/she will be asked for consent as in whether to allow a third-party website to receive his/her information. If the user clicks OK, he/she will be then redirected to the URL assigned to the parameter “&redirect_uri".





If a user has not logged onto 163 and clicks the URL ([1]) above, the same situation will happen upon login.






After acceptance of third-party application:
A logged-in 163 user would no longer be asked for consent and could be redirected to a webpage controlled by the attacker when he/she clicks the URL ([1]).




For a user who has not logged in, the attack could still be completed after a pop-up page that prompts him/her to log in.







(2.1.1) 163 would normally allow all the URLs that belong to the domain of an authorized third-party website. However, these URLs could be prone to manipulation. For example, the “&redirect_uri" parameter in the URLs is supposed to be set by the third-party websites, but an attacker could change its value to make Attacks. 






Hence, a user could be redirected from 163 to a vulnerable URL in that domain first and later be redirected from this vulnerable site to a malicious site unwillingly. This is as if the user is redirected from 163 directly. The number of 163’s OAuth 2.0 client websites is so huge that such Attacks could be commonplace.



More seriously, some third-party websites may allow all URLs (even not belong to themselves) for “&redirect_uri" parameter.



Before acceptance of the third-party application, 163’s OAuth 2.0 system makes the redirects appear more trustworthy and could potentially increase the likelihood of successful Open Redirect Attacks of third-party website.



Once the user accepts the application, the attackers could completely bypass 163’s authentication system and attack more easily.









(2.2) Used one of webpages for the following tests. The webpage is “http://mathpost.tumblr.com/“. We can suppose it is malicious and contains code that collect sensitive information of both third-party app and users.




Below is an example of a vulnerable third-party domain:
yhd.com




POC Video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0KF65swbl8A



Blog Detail:
http://tetraph.blogspot.com/2014/05/163s-oauth-20-covert-redirect-system.html







(3) What is Covert Redirect? 
Covert Redirect is a class of security bugs disclosed in May 2014. It is an application that takes a parameter and redirects a user to the parameter value without sufficient validation. This often makes use of Open Redirect and XSS (Cross-site Scripting) vulnerabilities in third-party applications.

Covert Redirect is also related to single sign-on, such as OAuth and OpenID. Hacker may use it to steal users’ sensitive information. Almost all OAuth 2.0 and OpenID providers worldwide are affected. Covert Redirect can work together with CSRF (Cross-site Request Forgery) as well. 






Discover and Reporter:
Jing Wang, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. 
(@justqdjing)
http://tetraph.com/wangjing/








Related Articles:
http://tetraph.com/security/covert-redirect/163s-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect
https://twitter.com/buttercarrot/status/558906604641198081
https://itinfotechnology.wordpress.com/2014/06/02/netease-system-bug/
http://germancast.blogspot.com/2014/06/netease-hacking.html
http://essaybeans.lofter.com/post/1cc77d20_706b68a
http://diebiyi.com/articles/security/covert-redirect/163s-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect
http://lifegrey.tumblr.com/post/120698901934/whitehatview-internet-users-threatened
http://securityrelated.blogspot.com/2014/07/netease-web-service-bug.html
http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/covert-redirect/163s-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect
http://tetraph.blog.163.com/blog/static/23460305120144715554901/
https://inzeed.wordpress.com/2014/06/08/netease-163-bug/

Monday, 7 July 2014

新浪 微博 网站 OAuth 2.0 隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 网络安全漏洞 (信息泄漏 & 公开重定向)






新浪 微博 网站 OAuth 2.0 隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 网络安全漏洞 (信息泄漏 & 公开重定向) 



(1) 域名:
weibo.com
 


"新浪微博是一个由新浪网推出, 提供微型博客服务类的社交网站。用户可以通过网页、WAP页面、手机客户端、手机短信、彩信发布消息或上传图片。新浪可以把微博理解为“微型博客”或者 “一句话博客”。用户可以将看到的、听到的、想到的事情写成一句话,或发一张图片,通过电脑或者手机随时随地分享给朋友,一起分享、讨论;还可以关注朋 友,即时看到朋友们发布的信息" (百度百科)




(2) 漏洞描述:

新浪 微博 网站有有一个计算机安全问题,黑客可以对它进行隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 网络攻击。



这个漏洞不需要用户登录,测试是基于微软 Windows 8 的 IE (10.0.9200.16750); Ubuntu (14.04) 的 Mozilla 火狐 (Firefox 34.0) 和 谷歌 Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0; 以及苹果 OS X Lion 10.7 的 Safari 6.16。









(2.1) 漏洞细节:
Weibo 的 OAuth 2.0 系统可能遭到攻击。更确切地说, Weibo 对 OAuth 2.0 系统的 parameter “&redirect_uri“ 验证不够充分。可以用来构造对 Weibo 的 URL跳转 攻击。

与此同时,这个漏洞可以用下面的参数来收集第三方 App 和 用户 的敏感信息(敏感信息包含在 HTTP header里), 
"&response_type"=sensitive_info,token,code...
"&scope"=get_user_info%2Cadd_share...



它也增加了对第三方网站 URL跳转 攻击的成功率。




漏洞地点 "oauth2/authorize?",参数"&redirect_uri", e.g.
https://api.weibo.com/oauth2/authorize?client_id=2021435350&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fuc.cjcp.com.cn%2Findex.php%3Fm%3DUser%26a%3Dcallback%26type%3Dsina&response_type=code [1]





同意三方 App 前:
当一个已经登录的 Weibo 用户点击上面的 URL ([1]), 对话框会询问他是否接受第三方 App 接收他的信息。如果同意,他会被跳转到 参数 "&redirect_uri" 的 URL。

如果没有登录的 Weibo 用户点击 URL ([1]), 他登录后会发生同样的事情。






同意三方 App 后:
已经登录的 Weibo 用户 不会再被询问是否接受 三方 App。当他点击 URL ([1]) 时,他会被直接跳转到攻击者控制的页面。


如果 Weibo 用户没有登录,攻击依然可以在要求他登录的Weibo的对话框被确认后完成(这个过程不会提示任何和三方 App 有关的内容)。




(2.1.1) Weibo 一般会允许属于已被验证过得三方 App domain 的所有 URLs。 然而,这些 URLs 可以被操控。比如,参数 "&redirect_uri" 是被三方 App 设置的,但攻击者可以修改此参数的值。


因此,Weibo 用户意识不到他会被先从 Weibo 跳转到第三方 App 的网页,然后从此网页跳转到有害的网页。这与从 Weibo 直接跳转到有害网页是一样的。


因为 Weibo 的 OAuth 2.0 客户很多,这样的攻击可以很常见。


在同意三方 App 之前,Weibo 的 OAuth 2.0 让用户更容易相信被跳转的页面是安全的。这增加了三方 App 被 URL跳转 攻击的成功率。




同意三方 App 后, 攻击者可以完全绕过 Weibo 的 URL跳转 验证系统。


用了一个页面进行了测试, 页面是 "http://tetraphlike.lofter.com/". 可以假定它是有害的,并且含有收集三方 App 和用户敏感信息的 code。



下面是一个有漏洞的三方 domain:
cjcp.com.cn




这个 domain 有漏洞的 URL:
http://uc.cjcp.com.cn/?m=user&a=otherLogin&type=Weibo&furl=http%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A2%258E%25E5%25A4%258F.html




Weibo 与 cjcp.com.cn 有关的有漏洞的 URL:
https://api.weibo.com/oauth2/authorize?client_id=2021435350&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fuc.cjcp.com.cn%2Findex.php%3Fm%3DUser%26a%3Dcallback%26type%3Dsina&response_type=code





POC:
https://api.weibo.com/oauth2/authorize?client_id=2021435350&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fuc.cjcp.com.cn%2F%3Fm%3Duser%26a%3DotherLogin%26type%3Dsina%26furl%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Ftetraph.com%252Fessayjeans%252Fseasons%252F%2525E7%2525A5%2525AD%2525E6%252598%2525A5.html&response_type=code [2]








(2.2) 攻击的另一个方法.

攻击者在浏览器输入 URL,
http://uc.cjcp.com.cn/?m=user&a=otherLogin&type=sina&furl=http%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A5%25AD%25E6%2598%25A5.html




然后,攻击者可以得到 URL,
https://api.weibo.com/oauth2/authorize?client_id=2021435350&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fuc.cjcp.com.cn%2Findex.php%3Fm%3DUser%26a%3Dcallback%26type%3Dsina&response_type=code [3]




如果用户点击 URL [3], 发生的事情和 URL [2] 一样.






(2.3)下面的 URLs 有同样的漏洞.
https://api.t.sina.com.cn/oauth2/authorize?client_id=496934491&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.paidai.com%2Fsiteuser%2Foauth_sina.php%3Ffrom%3Dweibo&response_type=code





POC 视频:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eKozHxrk4js


博客细节:
http://tetraph.blogspot.com/2014/05/sina-weibo-oauth-20-covert-redirect.html











(3) 什么是隐蔽重定向? 

隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 是一个计算机网络安全漏洞。这个漏洞发布于 2014年5月。漏洞成因是网络应用软件对跳转到合作者的跳转没有充分过滤。这个漏洞经常利用第三方网站 (包括合作网站) 的公开重定向 (Open Redirect) 或者 跨站脚本漏洞 (XSS - Cross-site Scripting) 问题。





隐蔽重定向也对单点登录 (single sign-on) 有影响。最初发布的是对两款常用登录软件 OAuth 2.0 和 OpenID 的影响。黑客可以利用真实的网站进行网络钓鱼,从而窃取用户敏感信息。几乎所用提供 OAuth 2.0 和 OpenID 服务的网站都被影响。隐蔽重定向还可以和 跨站请求伪造 (CSRF - Cross-site Request Forgery) 一起利用。它的 scipID ID 是 13185; OSVDB ID 是 106567;  Bugtraq ID 是 67196;  X-Force ID 是 93031。

























================




Sina Weibo OAuth 2.0 Service Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs (Information Leakage & Open Redirect)



(1) Domain:
weibo.com

"Sina Weibo (NASDAQ: WB) is a Chinese microblogging (weibo) website. Akin to a hybrid of Twitter and Facebook, it is one of the most popular sites in China, in use by well over 30% of Internet users, with a market penetration similar to the United States' Twitter. It was launched by SINA Corporation on 14 August 2009, and has 503 million registered users as of December 2012. About 100 million messages are posted each day on Sina Weibo. In March 2014, Sina Corporation announced a spinoff of Weibo as a separate entity and filed an IPO under the symbol WB. Sina retains 56.9% ownership in Weibo. The company began trading publicly on April 17, 2014. "Weibo" (微博) is the Chinese word for "microblog". Sina Weibo launched its new domain name weibo.com on 7 April 2011, deactivating and redirecting from the old domain, t.sina.com.cn to the new one. Due to its popularity, the media sometimes directly uses "Weibo" to refer to Sina Weibo. However, there are other Chinese microblogging/weibo services including Tencent Weibo, Sohu Weibo and NetEase Weibo." (Wikipedia)






(2) Vulnerability Description:
Weibo web application has a computer security problem. Hacker can exploit it by Covert Redirect cyber attacks. 

The vulnerabilities can be attacked without user login. Tests were performed on Microsoft IE (10.0.9200.16750) of Windows 8, Mozilla Firefox (34.0) & Google Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0 ubuntu0.14.04.1.1064 (64-bit) of Ubuntu (14.04),Apple Safari 6.1.6 of Mac OS X Lion 10.7. 











(2.1) Vulnerability Detail:

Weibo's OAuth 2.0 system is susceptible to Attacks. More specifically, the authentication of parameter "&redirct_uri" in OAuth 2.0 system is insufficient. It can be misused to design Open Redirect Attacks to Weibo.


At the same time, it can be used to collect sensitive information of both third-party app and users by using the following parameters (sensitive information is contained in HTTP header.), "&response_type"=sensitive_info,token... "&scope"=get_user_info%2Cadd_share...


It increases the likelihood of successful Open Redirect Attacks to third-party websites, too.



The vulnerabilities occurs at page "oauth2/authorize?" with parameter "&redirect_uri", e.g. https://api.weibo.com/oauth2/authorize?client_id=2021435350&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fuc.cjcp.com.cn%2Findex.php%3Fm%3DUser%26a%3Dcallback%26type%3Dsina&response_type=code [1]



Before acceptance of third-party application: When a logged-in Weibo user clicks the URL ([1]) above, he/she will be asked for consent as in whether to allow a third-party website to receive his/her information. If the user clicks OK, he/she will be then redirected to the URL assigned to the parameter "&redirect_uri".



If a user has not logged onto Weibo and clicks the URL ([1]) above, the same situation will happen upon login.



After acceptance of third-party application: A logged-in Weibo user would no longer be asked for consent and could be redirected to a webpage controlled by the attacker when he/she clicks the URL ([1]).



For a user who has not logged in, the attack could still be completed after a pop-up page that prompts him/her to log in.





(2.1.1) Weibo would normally allow all the URLs that belong to the domain of an authorized third-party website. However, these URLs could be prone to manipulation. For example, the "&redirect_uri" parameter in the URLs is supposed to be set by the third-party websites, but an attacker could change its value to make Attacks.


Hence, a user could be redirected from Weibo to a vulnerable URL in that domain first and later be redirected from this vulnerable site to a malicious site unwillingly. This is as if the user is redirected from Weibo directly. The number of Weibo's OAuth 2.0 client websites is so huge that such Attacks could be commonplace.


Before acceptance of the third-party application, Weibo's OAuth 2.0 system makes the redirects appear more trustworthy and could potentially increase the likelihood of successful Open Redirect Attacks of third-party website.


Once the user accepts the application, the attackers could completely bypass Weibo's authentication system and attack more easily.



Used one of webpages for the following tests. The webpage is "https://biyiniao.wordpress.com/". We can suppose it is malicious and contains code that collect sensitive information of both third-party app and users.


Below is an example of a vulnerable third-party domain: cjcp.com.cn



Vulnerable URL in this domain:
http://uc.cjcp.com.cn/?m=user&a=otherLogin&type=sina&furl=http%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A5%25AD%25E6%2598%25A5.html



Vulnerable URL from Weibo that is related to cjcp.com.cn:
https://api.weibo.com/oauth2/authorize?client_id=2021435350&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fuc.cjcp.com.cn%2Findex.php%3Fm%3DUser%26a%3Dcallback%26type%3Dsina&response_type=code



POC:
https://api.weibo.com/oauth2/authorize?client_id=2021435350&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fuc.cjcp.com.cn%2F%3Fm%3Duser%26a%3DotherLogin%26type%3Dsina%26furl%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Ftetraph.com%252Fessayjeans%252Fseasons%252F%2525E7%2525A5%2525AD%2525E6%252598%2525A5.html&response_type=code [2]





(2.2) Another method for attackers.
Attackers enter the following URL in browser,
http://uc.cjcp.com.cn/?m=user&a=otherLogin&type=sina&furl=http%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A5%25AD%25E6%2598%25A5.html


Then, attackers can get URL below,
https://api.weibo.com/oauth2/authorize?client_id=2021435350&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fuc.cjcp.com.cn%2Findex.php%3Fm%3DUser%26a%3Dcallback%26type%3Dsina&response_type=code
 [3]

If users click URL [3], the same thing will happen as URL [2].



POC Video:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eKozHxrk4js


Blog Detail:
http://tetraph.blogspot.com/2014/05/sina-weibo-oauth-20-covert-redirect.html





(3) What is Covert Redirect? 

Covert Redirect is a class of security bugs disclosed in May 2014. It is an application that takes a parameter and redirects a user to the parameter value without sufficient validation. This often makes use of Open Redirect and XSS (Cross-site Scripting) vulnerabilities in third-party applications.



Covert Redirect is also related to single sign-on, such as OAuth and OpenID. Hacker may use it to steal users' sensitive information. Almost all OAuth 2.0 and OpenID providers worldwide are affected. Covert Redirect can work together with CSRF (Cross-site Request Forgery) as well. 






Discover and Reporter:
Wang Jing, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. (@justqdjing)









Related Articles:

http://diebiyi.com/articles/security/covert-redirect/sinas-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect-vulnerability-information-leakage-open-redirect/
http://tetraph.com/security/covert-redirect/sina-weibo-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect-vulnerability-information-leakage-open-redirect/